Acidification and Eutrophication 

The deposition of acidic species can have adverse effects on buildings and vegetation, as well as acidifying soils streams and lakes and damaging the aquatic environment. Sulphur and nitrogen oxides from fuel combustion are the major contributors to acidification (RGAR, 1997). Ammonia plays an important part in the long range transport of the acidic pollutants through the formation of relatively stable particles of ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate. Although ammonia is a basic gas, it can also have a direct effect on acidification. The biological transformation of NH4+ to NO3- in soils (denitrification) and plant uptake, both release acidity into the soil can contribute to soil acidification. Both ammonia and nitrogen oxides enrichen the soils with nitrogen, desturbing the natural balance of species on soils with lower nitrogen content.

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Recovery from acidification and eutrophication