Why do we estimate?

Monitoring Mechanism Regulation (MMR)

The European Union EU Monitoring Mechanism regulation (MMR) is designed for two clear purposes. The first is to enable the EU to report to the UNFCCC as a single entity (effectively as a country). The second is to ensure that the European Commission and the countries in the European Union have a system for measuring, analysing and managing information on progress and future action on climate change so that it can make its own informed policy decisions.  The UK (and other EU Member States) report draft greenhouse gas emission and removal estimates to the European Commission by 15th January each year and data on projections (looking up to 15 years into the future) and policies and measures every two years.

Each year by 15th March Member States submit finalised estimates of greenhouse gas emissions to the EU, and the EU estimates are compiled for submission to the UNFCCC by April 15th.

Reflecting the UNFCCC reporting requirements the MMR covers the 7 greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4, HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and NF3) plus 4 indirect greenhouse gases (NOx CO, NMVOC and SO2).

Under the Effort Sharing Decision, countries within the European Union have agreed to collectively reduce emissions by 2020 compared to 2005 with the following:

  • a collective 21% reduction target compared to 2005 for emissions covered by the traded sector (EU ETS (including domestic and international aviation));
  • a collective 10% reduction target compared to 2005 for the remaining non-traded (non-ETS) emissions (excluding LULUCF), shared between the 28 Member States through differentiated national GHG targets included in the effort sharing decision (ESD).  The UK's contribution to this is for a 16% reduction by 2020 compared to 2005. 

The European environment agencies trends and projections report 2018 provides further analysis of these targets.

Get data

View the UK’s latest projections compiled by BEIS.

Detailed data used for the UK GHG estimates can be downloaded from the data page - GHG data (XLSX).

Page last modified: 20 May 2022